Pentobarbital Abuse, Addiction, And Treatment Options
Pentobarbital abuse can cause dependency, withdrawal, and fatal overdose. Treatment may include detoxification and hospitalization services to address the physical and psychological aspects of the addiction.
Pentobarbital is a powerful barbiturate prescription drug with a high potential for abuse and addiction. For these reasons, even within prescribed use, this substance is highly controlled and recommended only for short periods of treatment.
When used in excess and/or for long periods of time, the side effects of barbiturates can be disabling and, in certain cases, life-threatening. Pentobarbital abuse can cause decreased quality of life, dependency, dangerous withdrawal, and fatal overdose.
While anyone who misuses this drug can become addicted, people who struggle with alcoholism, opioid use disorders, amphetamine abuse, or other sedative-hypnotic abuse are more vulnerable to abuse and dependence on barbiturates. Buy Nembutal Online.
For these individuals, and those who abuse barbiturates alone, holistic treatment could be the difference between a lifetime of addiction and hope and recovery success.
What is pentobarbital?
Pentobarbital is a short-acting barbiturate. This means that the effects of the medication are felt fairly quickly, however, they do not last as long compared to long-acting medications.
Pentobarbital is the generic form of the following brand name prescription drugs:
Pentobarbital is administered in two ways, either orally or parenterally (not orally). The oral capsule is not currently available in the United States, however, the parenteral form can be mixed with flavored syrup and administered orally.
In addition to this, the parenteral form can be administered intravenously or by intramuscular injection (the drug is injected into the muscle). In certain cases, this medicine can be administered rectally. When abused, a person can use the drug in any of these ways.
As a depressant for barbiturates and the central nervous system (CNS), this drug can cause drowsiness, sedation, and a hypnotic state. For these reasons, it can be used before surgery, to reduce seizure activity, or, in more limited cases, as a sleeping pill for insomnia.
Pentobarbital can quickly cause tolerance. Because of this, its use as insomnia medication is not generally accepted or recommended for prolonged periods of time. However, if it is used to treat sleep problems, it is recommended that the medication not be used for more than two weeks.
About pentobarbital abuse
The ability of pentobarbital to cause rapid tolerance is one of the reasons why a person can quickly become addicted to this drug. To combat the effects of tolerance, many people increase their dose, an action that can accelerate addiction.
Pentobarbital, or Nembutal, is a Schedule II controlled substance. This means that it can cause psychological and / or physical dependence that further deepens the addiction. The combination of these effects gives pentobarbital a high potential for abuse and addiction.
The hypnotic effect of Nembutal lasts from one to four hours, however, it remains in a person’s system for 15 to 50 hours, depending on a person’s dose. As a short-acting drug, a person can take frequent doses to maintain their high behaviors that can fuel addiction.
When used for insomnia, a person can receive 150 to 200 mg once a day in bed. The typical person struggling with barbiturate addiction is reported to abuse 1.5 grams per day, a dose ten or more times greater than these prescribed doses.
Barbiturates were once prescribed quite frequently, however, due to their potential for dependence and overdose, they are largely disadvantaged with prescribers.
Instead, benzodiazepine medications are prescribed for similar purposes, due to their lower potential for overdose. Despite this, addiction to a benzodiazepine drug overdose is still possible. But even with the small number of barbiturate prescriptions today, abuse and addiction still occur. When abused, barbiturates can be called “spikes”.
Signs and symptoms of pentobarbital abuse
Pentobarbital has a profound effect on a person’s mental and physical states, especially levels of abuse. When this happens, a person will begin to experience a variety of side effects, some of which will be visible to an observer. In addition to this, the way a person acts and relates to the people around him can change dramatically. Buy Nembutal Online.
Mental signs of pentobarbital abuse
While short-term abuse of pentobarbital can cause mental symptoms such as confusion, lack of judgment, and trouble thinking, long-term heavy abuse of barbiturates can produce certain chronic side effects, such as:
- An altered level of alertness
- Decreased performance
- Memory loss
Some people can self-medicate emotional problems or mental health disorders with pentobarbital. This can not only worsen certain psychological problems but can also create an environment that encourages addiction.
Physical signs of pentobarbital abuse
Due to the sedative and hypnotic properties of the drug, even small amounts of pentobarbital can cause physical changes. The higher the amount used, the more obvious certain effects may be. The physical side effects of pentobarbital abuse can include:
- Blurry vision
- Dragged speech
Continuing to abuse a drug, despite the side effects it causes, is a characteristic of addiction.
Behavioral Signs of Pentobarbital Abuse
As a person’s abuse becomes more frequent, compulsive patterns can emerge. When drug seeking and use begin to overcome a person’s self-care habits or desire to fulfill important responsibilities, there are likely other characteristics of the addiction.
Drug abuse changes the way a person works in their daily lives. As a substance use disorder develops, a person may exhibit the following signs of behavior abuse.
- use the medication in larger amounts or for longer than expected.
- cannot reduce the amount they use or quit smoking, even when they want to.
- lose large amounts of time using the drug or feel ill from its effects.
- often experience overwhelming impulses or thoughts to use the drug (cravings).
- have problems in your family, at home, at work or at school due to your drug abuse.
- continues to abuse the drug even when their relationships begin to suffer.
- He no longer participates in activities or hobbies that he once enjoyed, and instead spends time using the drug.
- Engages in dangerous or risky behavior while using the drug.
- continue to use the drug even when it is causing or aggravating a mental health problem.
- discover that the amount they are used to does not create the feelings they want (a tolerance).
- become ill if you stop using the medicine suddenly or if you alter the dose in large quantities (withdrawal).
In order to maintain a steady supply of the drug for abuse, a person can steal other people’s prescriptions or pretend they have a medical condition so that they can receive their own prescription. If a person is misusing their own recipe, they can also go through the recipe faster than they should. Buy Nembutal Online.
When asked about their substance abuse, a person can lie, evade, get angry, or claim that they need the drug to function normally.
Risks and dangers of pentobarbital abuse
Abuse of pentobarbital can endanger a person’s health, causing physical and mental health problems that range from mild to severe. Abuse of this medicine can cause:
- falls and injuries
- driving problems and car accidents
- An increased risk of osteopenia/osteoporosis
Also, women who abuse this medication during pregnancy can expose their baby to serious adverse health effects, such as addiction, birth defects, bleeding at birth, impaired brain development, intelligence deficit, and withdrawal symptoms.
Elderly or geriatric people may experience the sedative effects of pentobarbital more intensely. Prescribed use or abuse at these ages may be accompanied by the following risks:
- A high rate of physical dependency
- tolerance to the sleep-inducing effect of the drug
- The potential for low-dose overdose
While certain forms of drug abuse may be more common in younger people, substance abuse can occur and be dangerous at any age.
With its strong ability to depress the central nervous system, one of the gravest dangers of pentobarbital abuse is an overdose. Even if an overdose doesn’t kill a person, it could still cause other serious medical conditions, such as heart arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, pneumonia, pulmonary edema, and kidney failure.
Signs of a pentobarbital overdose
Pentobarbital can cause a fatal overdose. The effects of this medication can be so strong that some states use it to induce death during physician-assisted suicide or cause sleepiness during the lethal injection. When abused, even a small amount can overdose on a person who is abusing them for the first time.
At certain doses of abuse, the body cannot keep up with the amount of pentobarbital entering its system. As this occurs, the medication can reach toxic levels and cause a malfunction of the central nervous system. The CNS depression that follows can cause a person’s blood pressure, breathing, heart, and temperature to drop, a condition that can cause death.
Signs of a pentobarbital overdose include:
- decreased body temperature
- decreased energy
- extreme drowsiness
- A headache
- skin rashes, skin rash and / or large blisters
- dragged speech
- slow, labored or labored breathing
- difficulty to walk
In the most severe case, a person may stop responding, become unconscious, go into a coma, or develop typical shock syndrome. In certain cases, these states can become so advanced that a person dies.
Using pentobarbital with other CNS depressants, such as alcohol, benzodiazepines (Klonopin and Xanax), and opioids (heroin and OxyContin) can increase the level of depression in the central nervous system. In fact, most barbiturate-related overdose deaths involve alcohol and opiates, or a combination of all three. Buy Nembutal Online.
Multiple drug abuse can reduce the number of drugs needed to cause a minor overdose. For example, if a person is drinking, a smaller amount of pentobarbital than they are normally used to take could cause an overdose.
Pentobarbital withdrawal signs and symptoms
Frequent episodes of pentobarbital abuse can lead to dependency. The more a person uses, the greater the level of physical dependence and the intensity of withdrawal symptoms. According to DailyMed, a person who takes more than 400 mg for 90 days will develop a certain level of dependency. Taking more of this could cause dependency to happen sooner.
In a dependent state, a person’s body begins to depend on the barbiturate to function. Without it, the body reacts in shock and becomes ill. The timeline for pentobarbital withdrawal may vary from person to person, but minor withdrawal usually begins eight to 12 hours after a person consumes their last dose. Once a minor withdrawal is established, symptoms can develop in the following order:
- muscle spasms
- hand tremors
- changes in vision
- orthostatic hypotension
A person may also experience interrupted sleep during withdrawal, which includes:
- frequent dreams
A major withdrawal can occur between 16 hours and five days after a person last uses this medicine. Like withdrawal from alcohol and benzodiazepines, significant withdrawal from barbiturates such as pentobarbital could become serious and cause death.
When this happens, a person may experience delirium and seizures. DailyMed continues, warning that the use of doses of 600 to 800 mg for 35 days or more can cause withdrawal seizures.
Medically supervised pentobarbital detox
Intensive medical care could stabilize a person’s vital signs and protect a person’s life during dangerous pentobarbital or Nembutal withdrawal states.
Even if a person does not progress to this point, in an inpatient detox program, staff and medical treatments are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to ensure that a person remains protected and comfortable possible. The best medical detox programs provide these services so that a person’s body can begin to heal and cleanse the medicine from their system.
During this time, trained doctors can use medications to reduce or alleviate minor withdrawal symptoms. A gradual decrease or weaning program is likely to be used to help a person’s body acclimatize safely to the absence of the drug.
Receive treatment for pentobarbital addiction
Addressing abstinence and physical dependence is only part of the treatment. Once a person’s body has started to function in a more normal and healthy way, drug rehab can begin.
Outpatient and inpatient treatment options exist for pentobarbital, however, due to the level of psychological dependence this substance can cause, many people may achieve greater success in an inpatient drug rehab center. Buy Nembutal Online.
Evidence-based treatments for pentobarbital addiction, like behavioral therapies, will be tailored to meet a person’s needs. Residential treatment also offers greater opportunities for people with concurrent mental health disorders who need dual diagnostic treatment.
Selecting a program that provides these personalized, individualized services can best help a person build a strong and resilient foundation for a drug-free life.